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Международный научный журнал

ISSN: 2663-0419 (электронная версия)

ISSN: 2218-8754 (версия для печати)

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Tектоника плит и эволюция земли: концептуальный обзор

Пильчин А.Н., Лев Эппельбаум Л.В.

1 — Universal Geoscience and Environment Consulting Company, Онтарио, Канада М2М4В1, Канада, Онтарио, Виллоудале, Хилда ав., 205: lpilchin@gmail.com
2 — Отделение Наук о Земле, Факультет точных наук, Тель-Авивский Университет 6997801, Израиль Тель-Авив, Рамат Авив: levap@tauex.tau.ac.il
3 — Азербайджанский государственный университет нефти и промышленности AZ1010, Азербайджан, г. Баку, пр. Азадлыг, 20

Резюме

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На протяжении последних столетий предпринимались многочисленные попытки осознать закономерности тектоно-геодинамических процессов, происходящих на Земле. Хотя ни одна парадигма не дала исчерпывающих ответов на все вопросы, настоящий обзор призван познакомить читателей с современным состоянием развития тектонических представлений об эволюции Земли. Надо отметить, что эволюция ранней Земли характеризовалась рядом уникальных процессов, характеризующихся неконвенциональными параметрами. Однако физико-химико-геологические параметры большинства из них были в значительной степени утрачены (стерты) в ходе последующей эволюции Земли; некоторые процессы оставили лишь слабые следы своего существования и некоторые остаточные эффекты (особенно те, что имели место в катерхее и раннем-позднем архее). Среди таких процессов можно отметить планетарную аккрецию Земли, образование ряда уникальных горных комплексов, инициирование процесса тектоники плит, появление основных сил, движущих тектонику плит, значительное влияние тепловых параметров, роль избыточного давления в различных физико-геологических условиях, стратификацию земной коры и литосферы по плотности и ряд других термодинамических процессов. Почти все они остаются недостаточно исследованными ввиду значительной неопределенности в сроках и способах их эволюции, а также неоднозначности их вторичных показателей и тектоногеофизических характеристик. В то же время многие тектоно-геодинамические процессы и параметры были и остаются взаимосвязанными, и одновременное изменение множества различных факторов играло существенную роль в их воздействии на геологическую среду. Некоторые из этих сложных вопросов обсуждаются в данной статье. Например, какова роль феномена тектоники плит и когда на Земле начался этот процесс? Особое внимание в обзоре уделено непростым методам анализа природы тектонических процессов, применяемым учеными-геологами на протяжении многих поколений. В проведенном обзоре также использовались некоторые физические параметры, полученные на других планетах Солнечной системы.

Ключевые слова: тектоника плит, основные движущие силы, термодинамические модели, роль плотности, модели глубинного строения, ранняя эволюция Земли

 

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DOI: 10.33677/ggianas20200200043