Kangarli T.N.¹, Aliyev F.A.¹, Aliyev A.M.², Kazimova S.E.³, Safarov R.T.¹, Vahabov U.G.¹
1 – Geology and Geophysics Institute of ANAS, H. Javid Ave., 119, Baku, Azerbaijan, AZ1143: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 – Geophysical Expedition of National Geological Survey, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, Natavan Str., 16, Baku, Azerbaijan, AZ1117
3 – Republican Centre of Seismological Survey, ANAS, N. Rafibeyli Str., 25, Baku, Azerbaijan, AZ1001
Summary. Tension of the Greater Caucasus lithosphere, located in a zone of pseudo-subduction articulation of the northern and southern Caucasus massifs (tectonic microplates), is the result of penetration of the Arabian indenter into the buffer structures of Eurasian during the continental stage of Alpine tectogenesis (since the end of Miocene). This statement is confirmed by geophysical observation data over the structure and seismodynamic activity of the regional Earth’s crust that generally represents an underthrust zone of the southern Caspian microplate’s Kakheti-Vandam-Gobustan margin under the Eurasia’s southern underside (Scythian-Turanian epi-Hercynian platform), accompanied by heaving and southward advancement of the allochthonous accretionary prism built by structural-material complexes of the Greater Caucasus marginal seaside. This factor determines peculiarities of both surface and deep structure of the orogen, reflected in geological mapping, seismic and electrical prospecting activities, as well as gravitational and magnetometric observations in Azerbaijan. The paper describes the peculiarities of the surface and deep geological structure that defines the modern seismic and geodynamic activity.
Keywords: Greater Caucasus, tectonic zoning, Alpine cover, autochthone, allochthon, neo-autochthone, accretionary prism, pseudo-subduction, Pre-Jurassic basement, fault tectonics
Akhmadbeili F.S., Ismail-zade A.J., Kengerli T.N. Geodynamics of East Caucasus in Alpine tectonic-magmatic cycle (Azerbaijan). Proceedings of Geology Institute of ANAS, № 30, 2002, pp. 36-48 (in Russian).
Alekseyev V.V, Hajiyev T.G., Karkoshkin A.I., Khesin B.E. Gravity-magnetic anomalies of Azerbaijan and their geological interpretation. Explanatory note to “Map of gravity-magnetic anomalies of Azerbaijan SSR”. Scale 1:500 000. Yuzh.VNII geophysics. Baku, 1989, 96 p. (in Russian).
Alekseyev V.V, Karkoshkin A.I. et al. Geophysical characteristics of ore-forming factors in Azerbaijan area of southern slope of the Greater Caucasus and south-eastern part of the Lesser Caucasus in medium and large scales for period 1973-1975. GIAF Report of Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1977, 147 p. (in Russian).
Alekseyev V.V., Hajiyev T.G., Ismail-zade T.A. Development of petrophysical and physico-geological models of ore-forming factors typical for Alpine upland areas. GIAF Report of Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1984, 178 p. (in Russian).
Aliyev F.A. Seismicity of Azerbaijan area of the Greater Caucasus from plate tectonics standpoint. Proceedings of Young Scientists, Baku, № 9, 2014, pp. 92-100 (in Russian).
Allen M., Ismail-zadeh A., Vincent S., Alsop I., Flecker R. Cenozoic deformation in the South Caspian region: effects of a rigid basement block within a collision zone. Tectonophysics, V. 366, 2003, pp. 223-239.
Allen M., Jackson J., Walker R. Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates. Tectonics, V. 23, 2004, TC2008, doi: 10.1029/2003TC001530.
Baranov G.I., Belov A.A., Dotduyev S.I. Greater Caucasus. Tectonic delineation of lithosphere and regional geological research. Nauka. Moscow, 1990, pp. 196-215 (in Russian).
Dotduyev S.I. About mantle structure of the Greater Caucasus. Geotectonics, №5, 1986, pp. 94-106 (in Russian).
Dotduyev S.I. Meso-Cenozoic geodynamics of the Greater Caucasus. In: Geodynamics of Caucasus. Nauka. Moscow, 1989, pp. 82-91 (in Russian).
Dudauri O.Z., Togonidze M.G., Vashakidze G.T., Lordkipanidze M.B. Middle Jurassic volcano-plutonic association of southern slope of the Greater Caucasus (within Georgia territory). Collection of studies dedicated to 100th birth anniversary of P.D. Gamkrelidze. IKTs GIN of AS of Georgia, Tbilisi, 2004, pp. 424-432 (in Russian).
Gamkrelidze P.D., Gamkrelidze I.P. Overthrust sheets of south slope of the Greater Caucasus (within Georgia territory). Metsniyereba. Tbilisi, 1977, 81 p.
Geology of Azerbaijan, V.IV. Tectonics (editors V.Y. Khain and Ak.A. Alizade). Nafta-Press. Baku, 2005, 506 p. (in Russian).
Geology of Azerbaijan. V.1. Stratigraphy, lithology, tectonics (editor-in-chef Ak.A. Alizade). Elm. Baku, 2015, p. 532 (in Azerbaijan).
Green, T., Abdullayev N., Hossack J., Riley G., Roberts A. Sedimentation and subsidence in the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan. In: South Caspian to Central Iran Basins. Geological Society Special Publication, V. 312, 2009, pp. 241-260: www. geolsoc.org.uk/bookshop
Isayev B.M., Babayev A.G., Kengerli T.N. et al. Experimental and methodological specialized geological and geophysical research within Ismayilly-Shamakhy seismoactive zone dealing with problem of earthquakes prediction in Azerbaijan for period 1979-1982. GIAF Report of Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1983, 367 p. (in Russian).
Isayev B.M., Hajiyev T.N., Ali-zade S.A., Kengerli T.N. Overthrust sheets and olistostrome complexes of South-East Caucasus. Geotectonics, № 1, 1981, pp. 70-84 (in Russian).
Jackson J., Priestley K., Allen M., Berberian M. Active tectonics of the south Caspian Basin. Geophysics J. I., V. 148, 2002, pp. 214-245.
Kadirov F., Safarov R., Mammadov S. Crustal deformation of the Caucasus region derived from GPS measurements. Proceedings of the 36th National and the 3rd International Geosciences Congress. 2018. http://36nigc.conference.gsi.ir/en.
Kadirov F.A. Gravitation field and models of deep structure of Azerbaijan. Nafta-Press. Baku, 2000, 112 p. (in Russian).
Kadirov F.A., Floyd M., Reilinger R., Alizadeh Ak.A., Guliyev I.S., Mammadov S.G., Safarov R.T. Active geodynamics of the Caucasus region: implications for earthquake hazards in Azerbaijan. Proceedings of ANAS. The Sciences of Earth, № 3, 2015, pp. 3-17.
Kangarli T., Aliyev F., Aliyev A., Mehdiyeva Z., Vahabov U., Murtuzov Z. Structural position of the Greater Caucasus accretionary prism within the structure of Azerbaijan. Proceedings of the 36th National and the 3rd International Geosciences Congress. 2018a. http://36nigc.conference.gsi.ir/en
Kangarli T., Aliyev F., Aliyev A., Rashidov T. Geodynamics and active faults of the pseudosubduction zone in Greater Caucasus on the basis of seismological data (within Azerbaijan). European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2018b. http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-6713.pdf
Kangarli T.N. Alpine geodynamics of the Earth’s crust of Azerbaijan. In: Proceedings of the 5th Baku International Congress “Energy, Ecology, Economy”. V. 10, 1999, pp. 199-205.
Kangarli T.N. Mass overthrust within the structure of Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan). In: The modern problems of geology and geophysics of Eastern Caucasus and the South Caspian depression. Nafta-Press. Baku, 2012, pp.163-201.
Kangarli T.N., Shakinski A.M., Zamanov Yu.J. Tectonic stratification of the Earth’s crast of the Greater Caucasus and the problems of prospecting of oil and gas and ore deposits. In: Proceedings 10th Petroleum Congress and Exibition of Turkey. Ankara, April 11-15, 1994. UCTEA Chamber of Petroleum Engineers, 1994, pp. 94-103.
Karakin A.V., Kuryanov Y.A., Pavlenkova N.I. Faults, fractured zones and waveguides in upper layers of Earth Shell. VNII Geosystems. Moscow, 2003, 222 p. (in Russian).
Kangarli T.N. Differentiated-shifted tectonic plates in infrastructure of Govdag-Sumgayit complex of South -East Caucasus. Proceedings of ANAS, The sciences of Earth, №1, 2006, pp. 28-35 (in Russian).
Kangarli T.N. Jurassic allochthonous complexes of the Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan). Proceedings of ANAS, The sciences of Earth, №3, 2007, pp. 3-11 (in Russian).
Kangarli T.N. Overthrusts in structure of South-East Caucasus as indicator of accretionary interaction between North and South Caucasian microplates. “Recent conditions of Earth Sciences”. Materials of International Conference dedicated to memory of V.Y.Khain. Moscow, 1-4 February, Issue of geological faculty of MGU named by M.V.Lomonosov, 2011, pp. 849-854. http: //khain2011.web.ru (in Russian).
Kangarli T.N. Stage-by-stage formation of sheets of tectonically laminated Alpine cover of the Greater Caucasus within Azerbaijan. Proceedings of ANAS. The sciences of Earth, № 4, 2005, pp. 37-44 (in Russian).
Kangarli T.N., Akhundov A.B. Surface and deep structure of south slope of the Greater Caucasus. Soviet Geology, №10, 1988, pp. 42-52 (in Russian).
Kangarli T.N., Kasumov K.K., Korsakov L.N. et al. Report of results on complex geological-geophysical and hydrogeological research within Ismayilly-Shamakhy and Shaki-Vartashen seismoactive zones on problem of earthquakes prediction in Azerbaijan SSR for period 1982-1986. GIAF Report of Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1987, 441 p. (in Russian).
Khain V.Y. Geological research and oil search in Lagich mountains. Baku-Moscow ONTI NKTP of USSR – AznefteIzdat, 1937, 92 p. (in Russian).
Khain V.Y. Regional geotectonics. Alpine Mediterranean belt. Nauka. Moscow, 1984, 344 p. (in Russian).
Khain V.Y. Tectonics of continents and oceans, 2000. Nauchniy mir. Moscow, 2001, 606 p. (in Russian).
Khain V.Y., Chekhovich P.A. The main stages of tectonic development of Caspian region. International tectonic map of Caspian Sea and its margins. Scale 1:2 500 000. Explanatory note (editor-in-chief V.Y. Khain and N.A. Bogdanov). Nauchniy mir. Moscow, 2003, pp. 66-74 (in Russian).
Khain V.Y., Hajiyev A.N., Kengerli T.N. About tectonic nature of Apsheron sill of Caspian Sea. Reports of Russian Academy of Sciences, V. 414, № 4, 2007, pp. 523-527 (in Russian).
Kissin I.G. Fluids in Earth crust. Geophysical and tectonic aspects. Nauka. Moscow, 2009, 328 p. (in Russian).
Kleshchev K.A., Shein V.S., Slavkin V.S. A new conception of geological structure and oil and gas content of West Turkmenia. Oil and Gas Geology, № 5, 1992, pp. 1-8 (in Russian).
Kopp M.L. A new structure of Pre-Caspian region as a result of Arabian plate compression. Geodynamics of Black Sea-Caspian segment of Alpine folded belt and prospects for natural resources search. Abstracts of International Conference. Baku, 9-10 June, Nafta-Press. Baku, 1999, pp. 99-100 (in Russian).
Kopp M.L. Structures of lateral pressing in Alpine-Himalaya collision belt. Nauchniy Mir. Moscow, 1997, 313 p. (in Russian).
Mammadov P.Z. Deep structure and tectonic evolution of South Caspian Depression. In: Geology of Azerbaijan, Vol.VII. Oil and gas (editor Ak.A. Alizade). Nafta-Press. Baku, 2008, pp. 6-158 (in Russian).
Mammadov P.Z. Recent architecture of South Caspian megabasin – result of multiphase evolution of lithosphere in central segment of Alpine-Himalaya mobile belt. Proceedings of ANAS, The sciences of Earth, № 4, 2010, pp. 46-72 (in Russian).
Mirchink M.F., Shurygin A.M. Structure formation of Tertiary and Cretaceous deposits of South-East Caucasus. Nauka. Moscow, 1972, 160 p. (in Russian).
Nabiyev A.A., Guliyev I.M. Report of results of geophysical works on study of deep structure in Western area of Kura depression and piedmont of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan SSR) for period 1978-1981. Report of GIAF Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1982, 134 p. (in Russian).
Panov D.I. Tectonic structure of Jurassic terrigenous complex of the Greater Caucasus. Mechanism and its period formation. Proceedings of North-Caucasian State Technology University, series “Tectonics and geodynamics”, Issue 1, SKGTU Publisher. Stavropol, 2002, pp. 60-70 (in Russian).
Philip H., Cisternas A., Gvishiani A., Gorshkov A. 1989. The Caucasus: An actual example of the initial stages of continental collision. Tectonophysics, V. 161, pp. 1-21, doi: 10.1016/0040-1951(89)90297-7.
Salamov A.M. Report of results of preliminary exploration for fresh ground waters in Quaternary deposits of Oguz-Gabala field in Alazan-Airichai Valley for period 1991-1995. GIAF Report of Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1996, 139 p. (in Russian).
Salamov A.M. Report of results on mineral water search on territory of Ismayilly region of Azerbaijan SSR for period 1983-1984. GIAF Report of Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1985, 127 p. (in Russian).
Salamov A.M. Report of results on preliminary exploration of fresh ground waters in Shaki-Zagatala zone for period 1979-1981. GIAF Report of Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1982, 150 p. (in Russian).
Shardanov A.N. To issue of mantle tectonics phenomena in South-East Caucasus. Reports of AS of Azerb.SSR, 1953, V. 9, № 8, 1953, pp. 439-444 (in Russian).
Shardanov A.N., Molchanov M.F. Astrakhan overthrust sheet in South-East Caucasus. Proceedings of AS of Azerb.SSR, № 11, 1954, pp. 39-49 (in Russian).
Sholpo V.N. Types and formation conditions of Shaly Dagestan orogenesis. Nauka. Moscow, 1964, 167 p. (in Russian).
Shurygin A.M. Astrakhan overthrust sheet in South-East Caucasus. Geotectonics, № 6, 1967. pp. 98-104 (in Russian).
Topchishvili M.V., Lominadze T.A., Tsereteli I.D., Todria V.A., Nadareishvili G.Sh. Stratigraphy of Jurassic deposits of Georgia. Proceedings of GIN of AS of Georgia. New series, issue 122, Tbilisi, IKTs GIN of AS of Georgia, 2006, 453 p. (in Russian).
Vassoyevich N.B. About large overthrust sheets in East Transcaucasus. Proceedings of All-Russian mineralogical society, Iss. 2-3, 1940, pp. 395-417 (in Russian).
Vassoyevich N.B., Khain V.Y. Phenomena of mantle tectonics in Lagich Mountains. Proceedings of AS of USSR, №1, 1940, pp.76-80 (in Russian).
Veremeyenko O.V., Ivanova N.M. et al. Analysis and reinterpretation of geophysical materials on southern slope of the Greater Caucasus and adjacent areas for period 1983-1985. GIAF Report of Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, 1986, 208 p. (in Russian).
Vincent S.J., Morton A.C., Carter A., Gibbs S., Teymuraz G.B. 2007. Oligocene uplift of the western Greater Caucasus: An effect of initial Arabia-Eurasia collision. Terra Nova, V.19, pp. 160-166, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2007.00731.x.
Voskresenskiy I.A. About Bascal sheet in South-East Caucasus. Soviet Geology, № 7, 1958, pp. 62-84 (in Russian).
Voskresenskiy I.A., Khain V.Y., Shurygin A.M. Overthrust sheets of South-East Caucasus and their formation conditions. Vestnik MSU (Moscow State University). 1963, № 4, 1963, pp. 15-33 (in Russian).