Baku State University, Z.Khalilov Str., 23, Baku, Azerbaijan, AZ1148: firstname.lastname@example.org
Summary. The study of topographic anomaly effects on the stress-strain state at different depths of lithosphere with CASMO approach of the “World stress map” project is a critical. The main purpose of the paper is to study the effects of topographic anomalies in Caucasus (Azerbaijan) on the stress-strain state at different lithosphere depths. This study researches the topography, Moho depth and crystalline basement that affect stress-strain of the crust and the Earth’s sphere. As an initial step, Moho and crystalline basement maps were digitized and the ETOPO5 was used for topography. At various stages, HyperMeshTM was used for meshing the study area and AbaqusTM was applied for horizontal stress axes calculation. The results of the stress vectors distribution characterizing the stress-strain in Caucasus region demonstrate that the effects of right-lateral compression in the southern part of the Caspian Sea has eventually sub-meridional direction and stress-strain distribution over the study area is irregular.
Keywords: stress field, topographic anomaly, crystalline basement, Moho surface, HyperMesh
Agayeva S. Stress state of the Earth’s crust in Azerbaijan. Recent geodynamics, georisk and sustainable development in the Black Sea to Caspian Sea region. Conference proceedings of American Institute of Physics, Melville, New-York, USAб Vol. 825, 2006, pp. 97-102.
Agayeva S.T., Babayev G.R. Analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms for Greater and Lesser Caucasus applying the method of World Stress Map. Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. In: Proceedings of NAS of Azerbaijan. The sciences of Earth, Nafta-Press. Baku, № 2, 2009, pp. 40-44.
Alizadeh A.A., Guliyev I.S., Kadirov F.A., Eppelbaum L.V. Geosciences of Azerbaijan, Vol. I: Geology. Springer Int. Publ., 2016, 340 p. doi: 10.1007/ 978-3-319-27395-2.239.
Babayev G.R. Analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms for Greater and Lesser Caucasus applying the method of World Stress Map, Azerbaijan National Academy of Science. Catalogue of Azerbaijan Republican Seismological Center, 2009, pp. 67-74.
Bada G., Horvath F., Cloetingh S., Coblentz D.D. and Tyth T. Role of topography-induced gravitational stresses in basin inversion: The case study of the Pannonian basin. Tectonics, V. 20, 2001, pp. 343-363.
Bada G., Horváth F., Tyth L., Fodor L., Timár G., Cloetingh S. Societal aspects of ongoing deformation in the Pannonian region. In: Pinter N., Grenerczy Gy., Weber J., Stein S., Medak D. (Eds.), The Adria Microplate: GPS Geodesy, Tectonics and Hazards. NATO ARW Series, Vol. 61. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2005, pp. 385-402.
Balavadze B.K. Model building of Earth crust of Caucasus and adjacent areas. Proceedings of AS USSR, Earth Physics, № 2, 1975, pp. 75-83 (in Russian).
Belyakov N.A. Geomechanical substantiation of framing parameters of railway tunnels under North Caucasus conditions. Proceedings of Mining Institute, V.186, 2010, pp. 99-103 (in Russian).
Fleitout L., Froidevaux C. Tectonics and topography for a lithosphere containing density heterogeneities. Tectonics, V. 1, 1982, pp. 21-56.
Hashimoto M. Numerical modelling of the three-dimensional stress field in Southwestern Japan. Tectonophysics, V.84, 1982, pp. 247-266.
Heidbach O., Barth A., Connolly P., Fuchs K., Müller B., Reinecker J., Sperner B., Tingay M. and Wenzel F. Stress maps in a minute: The 2004 World Stress Map Release. Eos Trans., V. 85, 2004, pp. 521-529.
Ismail-Zadeh A., Müller B. and Schubert G. Three-dimensional modeling of present-day tectonic stress beneath the earthquake-prone southeastern Carpathians based on integrated analysis of seismic, heat flow and gravity observations. Phys. Earth. Planet. Int., V. 149, 2005, pp. 81-98.
Kadirov, A.G., Agayeva S.T., Aliyev F.A., Mammadov S.G., Babayev G.R., Kadirov F.A. Monitoring and seismicity of collision zone of Azerbaijan part of Greater Caucasus. Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings of NAS of Azerbaijan. The sciences of Earth. Nafta-Press. Baku, № 3, 2009, pp. 25-37.
Kadirov F.A., Kadirov A.G., Babayev G.R., Agayeva S.T., Mammadov S.G., Garagezova N.R., Safarov R.T. 2013. Seismic zonation of Greater Caucasus South Slope on fractal peculiarities of earthquakes, strain state and on GPS velocities data. Earth’s Physics, № 4, 2013, pp. 111-119 doi:10.7868/S000 2333713040046 (in Russian).
Kadirov, F.A., Floyd M.A., Alizadeh A., Guliev I., Reilinger R.E., Kuleli S., King R.W., Toksoz M.N. Kinematics of the Caucasus near Baku, Azerbaijan. J. Nat. Hazards, V. 63, 2012, pp. 997-1006, doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0199-0.
Kadirov F.A., Floyd M., Reilinger R., Alizadeh Ak.A., Guliyev I.S., Mammadov S.G., Safarov R.T. Active geodynamics of the Caucasus region: implications for earthquake hazards in Azerbaijan. Proceedings of NAS of Azerbaijan. The sciences of Earth, № 3, 2015, pp. 3-17.
Koptev A., Yershov A. Numerical modelling of thermal state of lithosphere, distribution of intraplate stresses in lithospheric folds of Black Sea-Caucasian-Caspian region. Newsletter of Moscow Community of Nature Researchers, Geology Section, V. 5, 2011, pp. 3-11 (in Russian).
Kreemer C., Blewitt G., Klein E. A geodetic plate motion and Global Strain Rate Model. American Geophysical Union Publication, 2014, pp. 3849-3889. doi; 10.1002/2014GC005407
Lanbo L., Zoback M. The effect of topography on the state of stress in the Crust: Application to the site of the Cajon Pass scientific drilling project. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, №. B4, 1992, pp. 5095-5108.
Molnar P. and Lyon-Caen H. Some simple physical aspects of the support, structure, and evolution of mountain belts. Geological Society of America, Special Paper, V. 218, 1988, pp. 179-207.
National Geophysical Data Center. ETOPO5 bathymetry and topography data. Data Announc. 88-MGG-02. NOAA. Boulder. Colorado. 1988.
Protosenya A.G., Belyakov N.A. Definition of space stress-strain state of temporal support of railway tunnel considering Earth surface relief’s effect. Proceedings of TulGU. Earth Sciences, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 158-166 (in Russian).
Randolph M., Krasovec M.L., Romer S., Toksöz M.N., Kuleli S., L.Gulen, Vergino E. S. The Caucasus seismic information network study and its extension into Central Asia. 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, 2015, pp. 71-78.
Rebetskey Yu.L. New data of nature stresses in strong earthquake preparation area. Model of earthquake focus. Geophysical journal, V.29, №6, 2007, pp. 92-110 (in Russian).
Rebetskey Yu.L., Kuchai O.A., Marinin A.V. Stress-strain state of Earth’s Crust in Altai-Sayansk mountainous area. Geology and geophysics, V. 54, № 2, 2013, pp. 271-291 (in Russian).
Shengelaya G. Gravitational model of earth crust of Caucasus. Nauka. Moscow, 1984, 128 p. (in Russian).
Telesca L., Lovallo M., Babayev G., Kadirov F. Spectral and informational analysis of seismicity: an application to the 1996-2012 seismicity of Northern Caucasus-Azerbaijan part of Greater Caucasus-Kopet Dag Region. Physica-A Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, Vol. 392, 2013, pp. 6064-6078, doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.07.031.
Yamasaki T. and Seno T. High strain rate zone in central Honshu resulting from the viscosity heterogeneities in the mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., V. 232, 2005, pp. 13-27.
Yetirmishli G.J., Mammadli T.Y., Kazimova S.E. Features of seismicity of Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus. Journal of Georgian Geophysical Society, Issue (A), Physics of Solid Earth, V. 16a, 2013, pp. 55-60.
Zoback M. First and second order patterns of tectonic stress: The World Stress Map Project. J. of Geophys. Res., V. 97, 1992, pp. 11703-11728.
Zoback M. and Mooney W. Lithospheric buoyancy and continental intraplate stresses. International Geology Review, V. 45, 2003, pp. 95-118.